Child Protection

Horn of Africa Bulletin Vol 28 No.1 January-February 2016

Published: 2016
In ‘Countering violent extremism: Challenges in policy and practice’ the Horn of Africa has witnessed its share of attacks by movements designated as terrorists. The rising incidence of these attacks, the endurance of the Al Shabaab in Somalia and the expansion of its activities into Kenya, point to the continuing relevance of efforts to counter terrorism. In ‘Violent extremism in the Horn: Regional dynamics and public opinion’ over the past two decades, violent extremism has grown to become the central security concern of several African states. East Africa, and the Horn in particular, are especially vulnerable to the spread of both indigenous and international terrorism and, shortly after the 9/11 attacks, became a strategic focal point for the American-led “War on Terror.” Porous borders, poor governance, corruption, as well as a history of enduring ethnic conflict have created conditions in which terrorist groups have been able to thrive. In ‘A community-based approach to increasing the peace in Nairobi’s informal settlements’ violence and conflict have always threatened vulnerable communities, but in a world defined by globalization, urbanization, and other developments fuelling the rapid movement of people across the globe, the capacity for violence today has the potential to destabilize countries and lead to regional and even global crises. ‘Radicalization of children and youth in Kenya: A new challenge to child protection’ focuses on this recent phenomenon of radicalization of children in Kenya into Islamic extremist groups. The article attempts to briefly explore the impacts of radicalization of children in Kenya as a new challenge in relation to the discourse of child protection. With a view of curbing the harm on the lives, well-being, survival and development of children in some parts of Kenya, the article also includes general remarks to be considered in the fight against radicalism. In ‘Embedding policies on community tension monitoring’ Terrorism exacerbated by increased radicalization of young people is emerging as a serious threat to states and societies in the Horn. What makes the situation even more critical is that the region is already afflicted by many other conflicts and vulnerabilities. The fear and threat of violent extremism and terrorism in the region now supersedes and galvanizes international concern more than any other form of violence.

Social Protection : Targeting the Most Vulnerable Children The Case Study of Tanzania

This research reported on the targeting approaches used in social protection interventions for the livelihood of the most vulnerable children. Intervention organizations mainly adopted three types of targeting approaches : 1) the community-based approach, which was the most widely used, 2) identifying children and their households based on a case-by-case basis through some kind of proxy means test using criteria set by the community or intervention organization, 3) identifying children based on their demographic characteristics. It was revealed in the findings that the majority of the interventions targeted orphans living in poor households, children living on the streets, labourers, and those living with very old caretakers. In most cases, NGOs and FBOs targeted children by combining various mechanisms. The national guideline was not used by NGOs and FBOs as it is extensively loaded with activities and expected outcomes (village/street level) that are too ambitious, which makes its application difficult given existing organizational, human, and financial capacities. Thus, the guideline was poorly implemented, even for the identification exercise led by the local government authorities. The findings clearly show poor participation of children in matters that affect them, with 80% of them not involved in any stage of the process and 84.7% not involved in selecting MVC representatives in the village/street MVCC and district MVC forum.

Assessing Levels and Determinants of Child Deprivation in Eastern and Southern Africa

"Progress in addressing inequities in child health and wellbeing in Africa has partly been curtailed by lack of proper indicators to measure and monitor progress in reducing the vulnerability of children. Child wellbeing has mostly been identified and measured using uni-dimensional approaches such as household income and consumption. Such approaches overlook the multidimensional nature and severity of child deprivation since they do not incorporate other aspects of child wellbeing such as access to health care, education, and social welfare provisions."