"I drew attention in June to the compulsion or temptation - I am not sure which it was - which led Zambian ministers to be the first to proclaim the failure of existing sanctions against Rhodesia, possibly in order to be able simultaneously to demand more drastic ones. They undoubtedly felt the compulsion, which most African governments feel, to be in the van of Pan-Africanism, to appear to be leading the crusade which seems still to have the greatest emotive appeal to Africans. This also had the advantage of depriving their internal opposition of the chance to criticise them for not doing so, a chance which they would certainly have taken if they could. There was the temptation to believe that if only others could be stimulated to do more, they themselves would be enabled to take action which might be decisive. They were also well aware that if the United Nations or Britain could be driven into taking more drastic action, and calling upon Zambia to participate fully, then they would have'at least some claim on both to be compensated for the losses which-action against Rhodesia would inflict on Zambia's economy. "