Zambia - 1968
Zambia had, by committing without reservation to sanctions against Rhodesia, damaged its economy and caused deteriorating relations with Britain. Although the UN recommended severing economic relations with Rhodesia, Zambia continued importing essentials. Short of destroying its economy Zambia could not have done more to fulfil its obligations. Zambia attempted using the conflict to end her dependence on Rhodesian communications and electricity. However, using alternative routes for imports and exports failed, and the copper mines will continue drawing electrical power from Kariba until completion of the Kafue hydro-electrical project. Zambia’s calculations regarding its ability to participate in sanctions were based on the prosperity of the copper mines. Zambia has denied allowing its territory to be used for guerrilla action against other countries. The effect of sanctions and the effort to make Zambia economically independent from Rhodesia led to more expensive purchases at higher rates, and subsidisation of local industries increased living cost in urban areas. The keys to Zambian unity are education, a focus for loyalty other than the tribe, and a charismatic leader, which was found in President Kaunda. Things are likely to get worse. The UN sanctions resolution will affect Zambian external trade, and the British government sacrificed Zambia’s interests to its own considerations.