"Working while Studying" and Educational Mismatching among Youth: Evidence from Zambia

This paper analyzed the effect of working while studying in college and university on educational mismatching in the Zambian labor market. The study used the 2014 School to Work Transition Survey data and estimated a range of extended ordered probit regression models that took self-selection and sample-selection bias into account. Our results showed that working while studying significantly reduced the likelihood of being undereducated for the job but increased the likelihood of being overeducated for the job, implying that additional support to enable youth to get exposure to the right amounts and types of work during college or university studies could potentially increase productivity by ensuring job matching. Stakeholders designing work-based skills-development programs should consider the possible counter effects of combining learning and working. Furthermore, there is a need for investment in guidance mechanisms for students wishing to combine work and learning.