The maritime boundary disputes in Africa, unless resolved in a concerted and timely manner, will imperil both the short and long-term implementation of maritime policies and strategies. Stakeholders and states in Africa must prioritise boundary dispute resolution if vital maritime economic development is to occur. This brief first outlines the background against which maritime boundary disputes occur in Africa, and explores why such disputes are a threat to maritime security. This is followed by an overview of the responses and mechanism that can resolve disputes. The third section explores recent contestations and how they are being, or might be, resolved. Some recommendations are made in the final section.