In this policy brief the focus is mainly on port infrastructure in Sub-Saharan Africa. Climate change risks are investigated as well as the use of climate services in decision-making. Recommendations are made for actions to enhance the resilience of hydropower schemes. It summarises a more comprehensive paper prepared to support the scoping phase of the Future Climate for Africa (FCFA) programme for the hydropower sector. Sub-Saharan Africa lags behind all other regions of the world in terms of people’s access to electricity. The World Bank has asserted that promoting the development of hydropower would lower the generation costs of electricity, reduce carbon emissions and help to insulate countries in sub-Saharan Africa from increases in the price of fossil fuels. However, hydropower makes up just under 20% of the installed generating capacity. Despite a considerable exploitable hydropower potential of about 1,750 TWh/year, and the opportunity to ensure energy security through hydropower generation, only 5% of the potential is currently tapped.