"This background report provides the context for growing tensions and analyses the unresolved issues of national integration that plagued Ugandan governments long before independence. It examines the effect of the decision to reestablish the traditional kingdoms as well as the Buganda Kingdom’s calls for greater federalism. In addition, it assesses Museveni’s reliance on patronage, his increasing authoritarianism and the discovery of large oil reserves. Lastly, it evaluates the results of the 2011 elections, the wave of recent demonstrations and the parliamentary revolt and considers the long-term destabilising impact of these issues."