This monograph examined the production and consumption activities of a resource-rich, but peripheral and marginalized region of a developing country, that is on an unguided race to develop, and is consequently paying little or no attention to the sustenance of the very environment that supports the process. In order to achieve this objective the rest of the paper is divided into six sections. The next section outlines the core conceptual issues. This is followed by a summary of the environmental setting of the Niger Delta region of Nigeria; then the economic development activities are briefly presented. Some of the key challenges of production and consumption activities are interrogated; then some of the issues to consider in moving toward a green economy are outlined, and the concluding remarks are made.