Tracking Effective Indigenous Adaptation Strategies on Impacts of Climate Variability on Food Security and Health of Subsistence Farmers in Tanzania

"Both long and short term changes in climate disproportionately affect regions in both the semi-arid and arid parts of the globe and the more humid tropics. Within these areas, effects of climate change vary across regions, farming and food systems, households and individuals. As smallholder farmers have been staying in these areas and that the climate variability has been affecting them, farmers through experimentation over time, have developed different traditional technologies in order to cope with the climate change vulnerability. In the case study areas of Lushoto and Mpwapwa districts, little has been done in tracking indigenous adaptation strategies developed to address impacts of climate variability on food security and health of subsistence farmers. This paper therefore provides a highlight of the existing indigenous and other related technologies that farmers in the respective districts in Tanzania are employing to counteract to the impacts of climate change and climate variability. In this paper, from community perspectives, indigenous and emerging technologies and innovations for climate change adaptation, ways communities behavior have changed towards climate change adaptation measures at individual and institutional levels; impacts of climate variability on food production and on health of farmers; both short and long term adaptation strategies developed by different rural communities are elucidated; policy recommendations for building climate change resilience at local and national levels in Tanzania are proposed. Based on the findings from this study a framework to support policy decisions in crop/livestock production and human health systems in Tanzania is recommended."