"We begin in Chapter 1 by a glimpse of the facts and realities of poverty in Ethiopia today in order that the scale and depth of the problem can be better appreciated. This is followed in Chapter 2 by an explanation of the nature of the rural production system in Ethiopia and the forces which have made it increasingly difficult for the rural producers to fulfill the primordial function of "simple reproduction". Chapter 3 endeavors to highlight the direction of change which the policy of modernization adopted in Ethiopia since the latter part of the nineteenth century has propelled the country. This is followed by an analysis in Chapter 4 of the impact of the policy of agricultural modernization pursued during 1967-1974. Chapter 5 describes the policy of "revolutionary transformation" introduced since 1975, followed by an assessment in Chapter 6 of the impact of this policy and other related factors during this period. Chapter 7 examines the undercurrents of population growth and the degradation of agricultural land which have contributed to the deterioration of the economic conditions of the rural population and aggravated the crisis of subsistence. Chapter 8 contains the main conclusions of our inquiry which suggest a possible way out of the Ethiopian dilemma — a dilemma of poverty amidst potential plenty."