There is much known about the physical resources of the Niger Delta region, as well as the implications of their exploitation for the people of the region. Just as the natural resources are important for the development of the Niger Delta region, so also are the human resources. The main focus of development programmes in all parts of the world is upon the people living in different communities within the development area. The population of any region serves both as a beneficiary and an agent of development. This first number in this series is on population factor in development in the Niger Delta region. This policy brief series for 2011 largely focused on the challenges facing development in the Niger Delta region under the CPED’s research theme on growth and equity in development in Nigeria.