"Transfrontier conservation areas (TFCAs) have been established or are under discussion in various locations within Southern Africa. The aim is to have 18 TFCAs in the Southern African Development Community (SADC) in coming years. These areas attempt to protect specific environmental assets that belong to two or more SADC member states and co-ordinate the land use beyond wildlife protection. They involve the participation of various actors ranging from heads of state and border officials to nature conservation officials, donors, actors in the private sector, local communities and non-governmental organisations (NGOs). They cover a host of cross-boundary issues including visa requirements, fencing, policing and patrolling; as well as the free movement of wildlife assets, their health and interaction with domestic animals."