The Impact of Climate Change on Small Municipal Water Resource Management The Case of Bredasdorp, South Africa
"In this paper we discuss both climate change and climate variability, so it is important to clarify the distinction between the two. Climate variability can be thought of as the way climatic variables (such as temperature and precipitation) depart from some average state, either above or below the average value. Although daily weather data depart from the climatic mean, the climate is considered to be stable if the long-term average does not significantly change. On the other hand, climate change can be defined as a trend in one or more climatic variables characterized by a fairly smooth continuous increase or decrease of the average value during the period of record. There is little in the way of concrete examples of adaptation and more specifically the costs of adaptation in the municipal water sector. This paper firstly evaluates the climate impacts for a specific municipal area, Bredasdorp, with regard to its surface and groundwater resources. The additional water supply required to meet the projected future demand in 2035 is calculated and the related cost implications are discussed. This process outlines a methodology that can be followed by other municipal engineers and planners when planning future water management strategies."