"This study examines key features of trade with China and assesses its impact on the Cameroonian economy. Specifically, it: analyzes Cameroon’s trade structure and evolution, with specific focus on China’s contribution; examines the evolution of Cameroon’s and China’s trade policy, with reference to market access conditions; identifies and analyzes sources and extent of gains and losses of the domestic key stakeholders confronting Chinese goods; and suggests policy responses that could maximise the benefits and address challenges arising from trade relations with China. China’s share of imports (essentially manufactured goods) to Cameroon grew substantially between 2001 and 2005, whereas exports (few primary products) to China have been declining and aggravating Cameroon’s trade deficit. This trade pattern would undermine the industrial sector and lock Cameroon in primary activities. A large proportion of surveyed consumers is sensitive to the origin of goods and consumes Chinese goods, in spite of quality concerns. In general, Chinese goods are having a positive impact on consumers, especially those at the lower strata in the distribution of income. Imported motorcycles from China are found to be complementing the production of taxi services in the main cities."