The foreign relations of South Africa's provinces

"South Africa's democratic Constitution has given birth to nine provinces, all of which from the outset began entering into various kinds of foreign relations. This essay examines the international activities of the provinces. The report includes an overview of constitutional powers and a brief introduction to South Africa's nine provinces. In parts three and four we consider factors respectively encouraging and discouraging South African provinces' venturing onto the international stage. In part five a typology of sub-national foreign relations is presented, followed by a description of the kinds of foreign activities undertaken by the nine provincial governments. The sixth part addresses the question of co-ordination of the international activities of central and non-central governments."