"Land shortages, declining soil fertility, and environmental degradation are exacerbating the ability of settler farmers in Ghana to create sustainable livelihoods. Institutional weaknesses in the land tenure and governance systems have contributed to the exploitation of settler farmers by traditional chiefs, at times resulting in violent confrontations. To enhance agricultural productivity in subsistence and export sectors and achieve food security in Ghana, the government must formulate policies conducive to farmers, including securing land tenancy for settler farmers."