"The migration of persons across international boundaries in search of better opportunities or as a result of war, conflict and political instability has risen substantially over the years. The UN Population Division estimates that there are currently 175 million people living outside of their country of origin which is more than twice the number a generation ago. As communications and transport infrastructure become more sophisticated and cheaper, this trend is likely to continue in the foreseeable future.This movement of persons from their own countries of nationality or citizenship, to another country where they take up temporary or permanent residence and may even become citizens, significantly challenges the notions of individual, group or national identity associated with nation-states. Even in multicultural and diverse societies such as those found in most Southern African countries, nationality and citizenship are over-riding features that define those who belong and those who do not belong."