"This study examined technical efficiency differentials between farmers planting traditional rice varieties and those planting improved varieties in Nigeria. The study used a multistage random sampling procedure for the selection of 302 respondents comprising 160 traditional rice varieties and 142 improved rice varieties farmers across four major rice producing states in the country.Results from these analyses showed that significant increase recorded in output of rice in the country could be traced mainly to area expansion. The use of some critical inputs such as fertilizer and herbicides by the farmers were found to be below recommended quantity per hectare. There was also significant difference in the use of such input as labour between the two groups of farmers. Other variables that tend to contribute to technical efficiency are hired labour, herbicides and seeds. Fertilizer, the most critical input required for increased production, was found not to have contributed significantly to technical efficiency."