This study examines the characteristics of rural women doing business in Uganda. It analyses the nature of business operations and structural barriers women face thus hindering them from seizing economic opportunities. It is part of a collaborative research project on ”Supporting Opportunities for Rural Women in Business in East and Southern Africa” implemented in three countries: Zimbabwe, Kenya and Uganda. The baseline study informs the design of the proposed intervention to support rural women in business. It also establishes the key parameters to be measured during the endline survey. Three research institutions were contracted to implement this project: the Institute of Environmental Studies (IES) in Zimbabwe, the Collaborative Centre for Gender and Development (CCGD) in Kenya, and Advocates Coalition for Development and Environment (ACODE) in Uganda. The overall aim of this research is to support the economic empowerment of rural women in value addition businesses in the three countries. This will be achieved through identification and promotion of viable business enterprises that lead to the creation of decent and sustainable jobs.