Southern African Agriculture and Climate Change: A Comprehensive Analysis - Lesotho

"Lesotho lies on the plateau of the southern African subcontinent. Variations in topography and micro-climate shape the country’s ecological zones—the lowlands, the foothills, the highlands, and the Senqu River Valley. Annual precipitation is highly variable, both temporally and spatially, ranging from 500 mm to 760 mm. Temperatures, too, are highly variable, ranging from –10°C to 30°C. Agriculture accounts for just 10 percent of the country’s gross domestic product, but it is the livelihood of most rural residents and employs 60 –70 percent of the country's labor force. The principal crops of maize, sorghum, and wheat, which are planted on nearly 85 percent of the cultivated area, have already been drastically affected by changing climate. Livestock contribute 30 percent of total agricultural output and also are threatened by drought and rangeland degradation."