South Sudan’s Revitalised Transitional Government of National Unity provides a roadmap to resolve the country’s civil war. But the transition has not been smooth due to profound structural political disputes, deep-seated corruption, inter-communal conflicts and a shrinking economic base. The report argues that South Sudan’s challenges are caused by a combination of external and internal historical divisions and the weak foundations of a modern state that affects the commitment of the elite to the implementation of the R-ARCSS. The report is organised into three major sections. The first section outlines the realities facing the R-TGoNU by giving a historical account of the context within which the agreement was conceptualised and is being implemented, and also provides a brief discussion on the formation of the R-TGoNU as well as a general description of the R-ARCSS. The second section lays out the prevailing political, security, humanitarian, and socio-economic context of the challenges various actors are facing and how they are adjusting to the power-sharing arrangement. Finally, the report proposes recommendations and possible avenues for consolidating gains already made. This report analyses the challenges facing the transitional government and the opportunities for stabilisation.