The Centre for Conflict Resolution (CCR), Cape Town, South Africa, and the South African Department of Trade and Industry (DTI), hosted a policy advisory group seminar on “South Africa, Africa, and International Investment Agreements” in Stellenbosch, South Africa, from 17 to 18 February 2014. The meeting brought together about 30 leading practitioners, scholars, and civil society activists to review the implications of international investment agreements (IIAs) for development efforts in Africa. The seminar assessed the principles that underpin these treaties, which are increasingly seen by critics as being at odds with emerging economic challenges confronting developing countries. The meeting focused on six key areas: the global context and changing perspectives on international investment agreements; the benefits that can accrue from foreign direct investment (FDI) and the relationship between investment agreements and foreign direct investment flows; the structure and impact of investment treaties; the core provisions of international investment agreements; the international arbitration system that provides for investor claims against states; and the implications of all this for Africa’s structural transformation and economic development.