SAIIA International Affairs Bulletin, vol. 13, no. 2, 1989

This International Affairs Bulletin contains four articles. Charles W. Kegley, Jr’s article describes the foreign policy of America’s Bush administration. Since World War II, American foreign policy has displayed a remarkable degree of continuity, and statements by George Bush have raised expectations of policy revision. Bush’s policy is defined by globalism, anti-communism, containment, military might and interventionism. However, the post-war policy pattern seems unlikely to be questioned and policy continuity will probably persist. Roger Gravil’s article describes the relationship between South Africa and the Southern Cone: Argentina, Uruguay, Paraguay, Bolivia, Peru and Chile. The alliance between the Southern Cone and South Africa was always precarious and unreliable, and the recent resurgence of democracy in South America has made it even more difficult for South Africa. The countries of the Southern Cone have adopted individual policies towards South Africa or ignored it. Paul B. Rich’s article describes ethnic nationalism and the state in contemporary Africa. It looks at the concept of nation-building, the role of the state, the symbols of ethnic nationalism, and concludes that ethnicity has a complex relationship with state power in post-colonial Africa. There is a struggle between ethnic definitions of African national identity. The state systems in Africa have not allowed a national political leadership to emerge, with politics characterised by factionalism and personal leadership. State power in Africa is not underpinned by the same public doctrine as in the West. Stan Schoeman’s article describes the question of creating a code of universal human rights. It defines and discusses the concept of values and value systems, addresses the problems of communication between these, as well as the implications for socio-economic and political development.