"Since 1979 two moves have been made to promote greater economic interaction and co-operation among the countries of Southern Africa. These are the South African government's proposal for a Constellation of Southern African States (CONSAS) and the African-initiated, nine-nation Southern African Development Co-ordination Conference (SADCC). In addition, another new economic grouping - the Preferential Trade Area for Eastern and Southern Africa (officially PTAESA but usually abbreviated to PTA) - extends beyond the confines of the subcontinent."