In Southern Africa, social exclusion and inequity remain leading obstacles to inclusive human development. They pose barriers to poverty reduction strategies, and hinder social unity and improved health conditions of populations. Social exclusion and inequity are further compounded by racial and gender discrimination. Consequently, the poorest of the poor are often affected by worst health indicators. Swaziland and Zambia are amongst the poorest countries in Southern Africa. Both countries are similar in terms of poverty-related disease burden with weak institutional health systems.