Review of Linked Modelling of Low-Carbon Development, Mitigation and its Full Costs and Benefits

This paper reviewed the modelling applications and models aimed at low carbon development. The conclusions and key messages follow from the literature on the state-of-the-art of models; variety of modelling studies, especially those focused on developing countries; and experiences of MAPS and CDKN linking projects for modelling of low-carbon development, mitigation and assessment of its full costs and benefits. The purpose of a modelling assessment is to delineate low carbon development policies that address key questions raised by policymakers and other stakeholders using state-of-the-art scientific knowledge and modelling tools. The modelling assessments typically address multiple questions such as: How shall demographic trends, consumption behaviour, income effects and resource constraints influence greenhouse emissions? What incentives and institutional structures - markets, rules, norms, taxes, quotas etc. - can transform societal interactions with nature to follow a sustainable path? How can research, planning, observation, analysis and decision support be better integrated with scenarios analysis?