"This working paper analyses the roots of the conflict in Jonglei state and the role of ethnic divisions in perpetuating the conflict, and interrogates the 2012 Jonglei peace processes to determine effective pathways towards authentic and sustainable reconciliation in restive Jonglei. An inductive mixed approach was used to conduct this research, which included an extensive qualitative review of existing academic literature, news articles, NGO reports, and peace conference transcripts. Interviews with government officials, youth leaders, academics, gender experts, activists, women’s groups, and participants in the peace conferences were conducted in South Sudan in September 2012, in both the capital Juba, and in Bor town, Jonglei. The subjects were selected based on their expertise, or their participation in the All Jonglei Peace process. Eleven in-depth interviews (1-2 hours each) were conducted with mainly South Sudanese (9 of 11) individuals in-country, and a group interview was conducted with 8 members of the Bor Women’s Association, through a translator. All of the interviews were recorded, transcribed and analysed using a framework of transitional justice, peacebuilding, reconciliation, and gender justice."