"In 2011, southern Sudan witnessed a successful and peaceful referendum, culminating in its secession from the Republic of Sudan and the birth of an independent Republic of South Sudan on 9 July. Despite the relative peace brought by independence, true peace in South Sudan is threatened by armed groups, rebellions and local conflicts; these have led to the deaths of thousands of people since 2005. Incidences of internal violence among local communities are also on the increase in many parts of the country. Against this backdrop, the Government of South Sudan has launched, and taken the lead, in preparations for national reconciliation and healing initiatives in the country. This Policy & Practice Brief (PPB) examines the reconciliation process that post-conflict South Sudan embarked upon, and reflects on the country’s planning and implementation, progress made, and how processes in the country can best be supported to achieve sustainable peace. With reference to reconciliation initiatives and programmes implemented in other post-conflict African countries, this PPB also outlines key challenges to the success of the South Sudanese process, and offers recommendations for various stakeholders to support the sustainability and success of the initiatives."