The contents of this book were originally presented on the international workshop held at Nairobi on 7th August 2008. The purpose of these proceedings is to bring some hints for reconceptualization. Chapter 2 deals with community participation. Local people use the same lands and resources which wildlife use, and so human activities can directly influence the course of conservation and vice versa. Chapter 3 picks up the problem of livestock depredation and compensation. Chapter 4 is a case study of another HWC, crop raiding by elephants. Chapter 5 scrutinize why the original goal failed, what the result is so far and how it affect local opinion concerning wildlife. Chapter 6 is a case study on a captive wildlife facility. In Chapter 7, a case study from Cameroon demonstrates how the concept of “sustainability” is used arbitrary and suppresses local resource use. Chapter 8 is a case study of Ethiopia. A local community seems to voluntarily organize community militia to conserve natural resources. Chapter 9 is the case study of a community of traditional hunters in Tanzania. The chapter presents the history of their resistance against conservation activities. Chapter 10 is a trial of “reconceptualization of wildlife conservation” after these case studies and a general discussion on the workshop.