"The Decade of Action for Road Safety 2011–2020 could succeed in directing attention and resources toward road safety in the developing world. This policy brief explores what could happen if initiatives like this were to have a significant impact in Africa. Using the IFs forecasting model, we examine the positive economic and social effects of reduced traffic injuries and deaths by comparing our base case forecast with an improved scenario. For the latter scenario, we assume that all African countries are able to stabilise death rates from traffic accidents at or near the current continental average (32 per 100 000 people). The first part of this policy brief attempts to understand traffic fatalities as a development issue, analysing the risk factors that contribute to accidents and suggesting interventions that address these risks. The final part focuses on scenario development, exploring the social and economic value of increasing road safety in Africa. "