"This study investigates the relationship between trade liberalization and the market structure and productivity performance of the Nigerian manufacturing sector. The study also shows that foreign ownership has an important bearing on firm performance and foreign-owned firms generate positive spillover effects on the other firms in the industry. Moreover, the findings support the current trade liberalization effort of the government as we found that the policy of trade liberalization and the lowering of average tariff rates open up the economy to foreign investment, the promotion of manufactured exports impinges positively on total factor productivity in the Nigerian manufacturing sector."