"South Sudan’s political and security landscape has evolved considerably since the signing of the Comprehensive Peace Agreement (CPA) in 2005, but the most notable domestic changes may unfold now that the January 2011 self-determination referendum is complete. Upon assumption of the presidency in 2005, Salva Kiir adopted a conciliatory posture, bringing warring Southern factions together in a fragile union premised on lowest common denominators. Confounding sceptics – particularly in Khartoum – he kept the Southern ship afloat and moving in one direction through the referendum, though not without significant tests. Now that the electorate has made the choice for independence, a new chapter in Southern politics is in the making. The immediate domestic challenges are immense, and must be navigated amid changing political tides, persistent insecurity and a precarious humanitarian context."