"A new ZIPAR report estimates the private returns to schooling in Zambia. These results have important ramifications for education policy and individuals’ investment decisions. Specifically, they imply that public provision of schooling should be concentrated at lower levels of education and that private provision of tertiary education should be encouraged. The public sector at tertiary level should: (1) be the regulator of standards and competition; (2) be the provider of strategic skills which the private sector cannot provide; and (3) promote equity by enabling the disadvantaged."