"Effective planning can both help make development resilient to the impacts of climate change and help policymakers identify opportunities to harness development benefits from lowering emissions. In developing countries, such planning requires the support of international finance, technology transfer and capacity building. Identifying national priorities for climate compatible development that combines adaptation and low emissions development objectives, while meeting the requirements of international support frameworks, involves balancing upward and downward accountability. This briefing examines lessons learnt from different country-scale action planning under such dual accountability frameworks."