Piracy in Africa’s Gulf of Guinea has long-range and potential long-term strategic implications for the economic, physical, and energy security concerns of the United States and its global allies. Unlike the situation off the coast of Somalia, piracy attacks in the Gulf of Guinea have increased in severity over the past decade. Piracy – a transnational threat – typifies the unique challenges posed by non-state actors operating within non-traditional boundaries. The United States must lead in stemming the tide of piracy by empowering a unified, sub-regional security force and – more importantly – must address the root causes of this transnational and emerging threat by fostering stable governance in the region.