The theme of the seminar discussed in this paper was: “The Peace building Role of Civil Society in South Sudan”. This seminar was held in order to reflect critically on the record of, and prospects for, civil society in peacemaking and peace building efforts in South Sudan. root causes of South Sudan’s multiple conflicts need to be better understood by key domestic, regional, and external actors through greater engagement with local communities, as well as more robust and rigorous conflict analysis in order for conflict resolution and peace building efforts to have greater impact and sustainability. National NGOs in South Sudan need to focus on specialization in key areas (for example, human rights, women’s empowerment, youth development, and HIV/AIDS programmes); on strengthening their technical capacities in these areas; and on becoming more professional rather than on pursuing donor agendas to obtain funding. It is vital for South Sudanese women’s groups not only to strengthen the linkages among themselves, but also to collaborate and form partnerships with other civil society organisations and international NGOs working on issues such as health and education that affect women in order to maximise their impact.