This report analyses, using concrete examples, the potential challenges facing six of the RECs and the resultant implications for the division of labour between them and the AU, looking at peace and security, governance, elections, economic integration, civil society participation and the fight against terrorism. The first article is titled “The AU’s first meeting to coordinate with RECs raises expectations”. In “North Africa could benefit from a functioning REC”, the principle of subsidiarity at the AU is discussed. “Will South Africa bridge the AU–SADC divide? “is looking at the observer missions launched for the general election on 8 May 2019 in South Africa. In “The EAC’s upheavals could be a blessing in disguise” the discussion centers around the questions raised during the 38th meeting of the EAC . “The AU re-takes the lead in Central Africa” highlights the relationship between the AU and REC’s using the Central African Republic as a test case. “ECOWAS struggles to address violent extremism” discusses the threat of violent extremism in the Sahel. For REC’s to remain relevant the article “The Horn of Africa should improve citizen engagement” discusses ways to include civil society in formulating policy and decision making.