Overlapping Claims by Somaliland and Puntland: The Case of Sool and Sanaag

Over the past two years, tensions over competing claims to the Sool and Sanaag regions by the self-declared entity of Somaliland and the autonomous Puntland State of Somalia have escalated. Local, regional and national contestations, combined with a failure to make progress at each level, hinders resolution. This report assesses the situation in Sool and Sanaag, focusing on the dynamics driving recent developments and options for the future. This report assesses the situation primarily in Sool and Sanaag and focuses on the underlying dynamics driving recent developments, while examining options for the future. The Cayn area, which is also contested, will be included in the discussion where appropriate. The focus will remain primarily on Sool and Sanaag given recent developments in these areas, and the at times distinct set of dynamics which affect Cayn as well, which may in turn require additional research.