"Africa shoulders the world’s burden of disease. It is the epicentre of the global resurgence of infectious epidemics and pandemics. Africans remain troubled by diseases like diarrhoea, measles, cholera and tuberculosis that have long been overcome elsewhere with the help of modern medicine and efficient public health systems. Notwithstanding the fact that the correlation between political economy and health was established in the 1970s, the twin challenge persists unabated in most of Africa. The modicum of public health systems and bourgeoning private health care in Africa are under immense pressure due to the worsening socio-economy and illness. Against this background, this policy brief examines how the interaction between socio-economy and health plays itself out in Africa, including the prospects for overcoming this challenge in the near future."