‘Outlaws on Camelback’: State and Individual Responsibility for Serious Violations of International Law in Darfur

"This paper examines the international responsibilities of the Sudanese government and individual perpetrators for violations of international human rights and humanitarian law during the Darfur conflict. I argue that the Government of Sudan bears international responsibility for the actions of its military forces and those of the Janjaweed militia, who acted as its de facto agents in prosecuting the war against the two rebel movements. I further submit that Sudan’s responsibility under international law is neither inconsistent with, nor does it detract from, the individual responsibility of senior members of the Sudanese government and militia leadership making the key military and operational decisions in the Darfur conflict."