"The article briefly assesses the conflict in Burundi after which it delves into the peace and reconciliation process of the 2000 Arusha Peace and Reconciliation Agreement for Burundi. The agreement stipulated the formation of an International Commission of Inquiry to conduct investigations, an International Criminal Tribunal to prosecute perpetrators of serious crimes and a National Truth and Reconciliation Commission in charge of establishing the truth of Burundi’s longstanding and violent conflict. The author explains that the National Truth and Reconciliation Commission was prevented from being set up as a result of criticism and opposition expressed by some politicians. In 2005, the report of an International Commission of Inquiry recommended the creation of only one commission made up of national and international members instead of the two commissions as suggested by the Arusha Agreement. Meanwhile, a Tripartite Steering Committee (consisting of the Burundian Government, the United Nations and Civil Society) was created in order to conduct national consultations. The objective was to involve Burundian society and to take into consideration its views regarding the implementation of transitional justice mechanisms. With regards to the establishment of the Truth and Reconciliation Commission, Burundians expressed their views in respect of the period of investigations, the composition of the Commission, the mandate and the operating procedures in general."