"This paper aims to explain the geopolitical set-up of the Nile Basin, the processes of the upstream-downstream negotiations, and the imperatives for upstream-downstream cooperation. It argues that the Nile basin countries must have a new agreement that paves the way for fresh and vibrant cooperation in the economic, environmental, security and legal/institutional spheres. These further enhance deeper cooperation in the cultural, scientific and technical fields among the riparian countries. In the final analysis, the paper concludes that a mutually acceptable cooperative engagement among the riparian nations in the Nile basin is conditio sine qua non for enhancing sustainable development in each country, as well as for achieving much desired peace and security among the riparian nations."