"This Policy & Practice Brief is informed by the persistent problem of contested electoral processes and results in a number of African countries. These are often accompanied by violence, with devastating effects not only on human security, but also on the prospects of democratic consolidation in these countries. Paying attention to the reality that in 2013, both Kenya and Zimbabwe will undergo their first post-transition elections following post-election violence in 2008 and subsequent signature of peace agreements, this Brief seeks to examine the current state of affairs in the two countries.In particular, it will assess the conditions under which elections will be held and, ultimately, proffer some recommendations towards enhancing the credibility and outcomes of these elections."