The purpose of this report is to provide analysis and policy implications to assist the African Union (AU), Regional Economic Communities (RECs), Member States and Development Partners in decision-making and in the implementation of peace and security related instruments. The opinions expressed in this report are the contributors' own and do not necessarily reflect the views of the Institute for Peace and Security Studies.Mozambique’s instability is no longer limited to the long-established conflict between the government, largely made up of FRELIMO, and RENAMO as the country faces other multifarious challenges. The security situation since then has been aggravated by an Islamist militia group that came up in October 2017 and has since gained traction in northern Mozambique. Furthermore, in March and April 2019, Mozambique was hit by consecutive tropical cyclones, Idai and Kenneth, that swept through central and northern provinces of the country causing immense flooding that resulted in destruction of towns, villages and basic infrastructure. The intense cyclones, according to the United Nations Office for the Coordination of Humanitarian Affairs (OCHA), led to almost 648 deaths and 163,927 people reportedly displaced while more than 2.2 million required humanitarian assistance. This humanitarian disaster raises major concerns for Mozambique’s economic and social stability.