Morocco and Mauritania enjoy geographical proximity conducive to trade and cooperation. Moreover, the high stakes currently at play in the Sahel-Saharan strip and the role played by Morocco and Mauritania in Africa at both the political and economic levels call for a review of shared strategic interests that bind the two countries. Despite geographical and historical proximity, relations between the two neighbors are not as intense as one might expect. Building stronger relations with Mauritania requires an understanding of Mauritanian geopolitics. Its geography is a key factor in both its domestic and foreign policy. The purpose here is to identify major trends shaping Mauritanian policy in order to shed light on the possible motives for Mauritania’s position vis-à-vis its neighbor, Morocco. Various possible avenues for rapprochement between both countries will be highlighted. Although already underway, cooperation in counterterrorism and economic trade are two of the pillars upon which the two countries can build.