"Chinese development assistance has become a distinctive and integral part of the global aid and development architecture. China has been increasing both the volume and geographical scope or reach of its foreign aid since the mid 1990s. This expansion has been particularly evident in Africa where it is viewed either as a welcome alternative to Western foreign aid that is increasingly conditionality-laden, in-effectual and less generous or as a risky adventure exposing African countries to re-indebtedness and undermining hard fought gains in governance, environmental, health and safety standards through lack of policy conditionality and lower regulatory standards. The emergence of China as a major player in the global aid and development architecture and the indistinctiveness of Chinese aid policy poses a fundamental question: Is Chinese foreign aid a boon or a bane for Africa’s development? This report sheds light on this question by critically examining the political economy of Chinese development assistance in Ethiopia."