Managing for Agricultural Results: Managing Farmer-Herder Conflicts in Tanzania

Land in Tanzania and much of Africa is a primary asset for survival and a major source of income and livelihoods for the rural population. It also carries spiritual values. Access to land resources therefore involves power and symbolic relations. The presence of conflict affects people’s economic incentives. Some sectors of activity flourish, while others suffer. This paper presents a case study on farmer–herder conflicts in Tanzania with the objective of establishing causes and best means to resolve them, including alternative approaches to conflict management. The work is anchored on the fact that there have been numerous efforts by the government to end the conflicts, but they have been escalating and are becoming economically and socially intolerable. The paper recommends reviews of land policy to ensure security of land tenure. It also calls for capacity development organizations to build capacities of African states in aligning land and livestock policies and bylaws to avoid more conflicts.