"Somalia’s troubled recent history began with the fall of the Siad Barre regime in 1991 and the subsequent outbreak of war among various clan-based actors in the different regions of the country. Since then, all efforts to restore peace, stability and normality of state functions have faced numerous challenges, which have culminated in a number of peace processes, agreements and more recently three major transitional arrangements. From the first Transitional National Government (TNG), established through the 2000 Arta Declaration and under the leadership of Abdiqasim Salad Hassan, the country struggled through more than a decade of two additional transition arrangements under the leaderships of presidents Abdullahi Yusuf Ahmed (2004–2008) and Sharif Sheikh Ahmed (2009–2012) till the end of the transition on 20 August 2012. This situation report analyses the final stages of the United Nations (UN)-led political processes that managed the end of the transition, teasing out lessons learned for the various stakeholders and assessing the sustainability of the successes chalked. It is based on interviews with various UN staff involved in the process, Somali academics, staff of civil society organisations and government officials conducted in November 2012."