Less than the Sum of its Parts: Europe’s Fixation with Libyan Border Security

Europe views the drop in migration from Libya to Europe as a success. The EU and member states have buttressed Libya’s border security by training and equipping formal forces, working with hybrid security forces, and making deals with armed groups. But these efforts impede the emergence of a functioning, civilian Libyan security sector and threaten stability. This is a problem for Europe. Migration will wax and wane, and its political salience will shift, but Libya remains on Europe’s doorstep.