Labour Constraints, Population Dynamics and the AIDS Epidemic : The Case of Rural Bukoba District, Tanzania

"Poverty, though noted to have no universally agreed definition, is given as a condition of living below a set minimum standard level, the poverty line. In rural Tanzania, it is widespread. This study investigates factors exacerbating poverty conditions in rural Tanzania by a case study of Bukoba Rural District. Literature review shows that there still exists gaps in knowledge on factors exacerbating poverty. Two poverty-exacerbating factors are identified: (a) labour constraints in the labour intensive smallholder agricultural production, the basis of rural livelihoods: (b) population dynamics: the onset of fertility decline. Recent developments, namely tolls from the AIDS epidemic and possible reduction of traditionally significant child labour contributions with the onset of fertility decline are focused on. The central role of the woman in the household economy is recognised. With deteriorating economic conditions, women have added cash earning activities to their already heavy workload, thus becoming the cornerstone of livelihood of households, but then with serious health and productivity consequences."